The findings could also allow reinterpretation of archaeological and anthropological evidence, like the famed “Kennewick Man”, whose remains don’t look much like modern-day aboriginal American or East Asian populations, according to some interpretations. “Maybe, if he looks like something else, it’s because a third of his ancestry isn’t coming from East Asia but from something like the Western Eurasians.”
Almost two decades ago, nearly complete human skeletal remains were found along the bank of the Columbia River in eastern Washington. Now, “Kennewick Man” is finally, grudgingly telling his 9,000-year-old story – and reshaping our knowledge of how North America was first populated by humans.
The dramatic scientific discovery almost didn’t happen because of a “politically correct” and compliant federal government and local Indian activists (recall that “displaced Indian” victims are a Democrat constituency). The Army Corps of Engineers were almost induced to give the bones to local tribes for re-burial before they could be studied, but, thankfully, a lawsuit filed by several scientists blocked the transfer.
The Corps did manage to prevent any further finds around where the bones were discovered, dumping two-million pounds of dirt and planting several thousand trees on top of Kennewick Man’s burial site – irrevocably compromising the site and forever preventing further scientific study, knowledge and understanding of the history of man in the Americas. (As we have seen, knowledge isn’t much valued by the PLDC anyway.) The U.S. Magistrate who heard the scientists’ case, wrote in his opinion that the Army Corps of Engineers had ‘prejudged the outcome’ in the interest of fostering a climate of cooperation with the tribes.
The Army Corps of Engineers was enforcing NAGPRA, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. The law, which was passed in 1990, established rules for the handling of “Native American” remains. But experts argued Kennewick Man might not be a “Native American”. He might be a Polynesian or a Western Eurasian who would have had no cultural or genetic connection to the “presumed Native American” standard (full blooded East Asian).
Still, the Army Corp of Engineers is defending its effort to hand the bones over to the tribes. “We are very sensitive to the facts the tribes view the remains as being very significant,” a spokesman for the Corps of Engineers in Portland, Ore. “The tribes view the remains as their ancestor.” The Courts (amazingly) disagreed with the government and demanded the Corps of Engineers allow the bones to be studied.
Anthropologists say the tribes are just trying to flex political muscle and the Corps capitulated. “That law is supposed to be a compromise between the scientists and Native Americans, not just a one-sided law that hands everything over,” said the first forensic anthropologist to study Kennewick Man.
Kennewick Man is currently being kept away from the public in Seattle’s Burke Museum. Scientists are required to petition the Corps of Engineers to run additional tests, which they say they’ll do. They believe Kennewick Man has a lot more to tell them about the history of mankind in North America. Whatever findings are eventually reported, they will be subject to much speculation because of the political interests involved – much like scientifically compromised issue of “global warming”.
The prehistoric man’s bones have yielded clues about his diet and lineage, convincing forensic anthropologists at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History that he was an immigrant who had come a long way before his death. Based on his diet of seals and other marine mammals and the shape of his skull, one theory is he and his ancestors traveled in boats from Polynesia, along the coasts of Japan, Russia, Alaska, Canada and eventually up the Columbia River – perhaps intermingling with other “tribes” along the way.
Now, consider this: Easter Island, or Rapa Nui, is such a remote speck of rock in the South Pacific Ocean that it has been nicknamed the “navel of the world.” Yet a review of genetic data of 27 natives suggests the islanders made contact with outsiders hundreds of years before the first Europeans arrived from Holland in 1722. In fact, the Rapa Nui people appear to have had significant intermixing with aboriginal Americans as far back as the late 13th Century, researchers report in the journal Current Biology.
The findings indicate “an ancient ocean migration route between Polynesia and the Americas,” says the study’s lead author. Though the nearly 2,500-mile journey would have been perilous in their wooden outrigger canoes, the researchers say it’s more likely the islanders ventured to South America and back than others finding their way to Easter Island – other than accidently.
Today’s Rapa Nui people are genetically about 76% Polynesian, 16% European, and 8% aboriginal American, though the European intermingling dates back only to the 19th century [at most, 10 generations], while the aboriginal American intermingling appears to go back 19 to 23 generations.
A separate study also published in Current Biology details the genetic makeup of two ancient human skulls from Brazil’s indigenous Botocudo tribe. The skulls were genetically Polynesian without any aboriginal American mixing, further suggesting that islanders traveled to the Americas. “We’re realizing there are people getting here much earlier than we thought, and coming using different modes of transportation,” the forensic anthropologists said.
Enter another group with standing in the debate about how, when and by whom the Americas were populated – North America’s Red Paint People, so-called because they added brilliant red iron-oxide, called “red ochre” to their graves, and also used it liberally on their skin.
Decades ago, a Norwegian scientist pointed out that the identical (Red Paint) culture was found in Norway. No one paid much attention to that, but more recent carbon-14 dating has shown that the identical cultures had identical dates, and people began to pay more attention.
It is now [accepted] that this is a high-latitude-culture that obviously sailed the North Atlantic and stretched from Northwest Europe across the Atlantic to North America. It seemingly extends from along the Atlantic coast of Europe to America and in America from the high latitudes of Labrador down into present day New York State.
The proposed dates are mind-boggling: 7,000 years ago both in Europe and America. That is 2,000 years earlier than the Great Pyramids of Egypt. It is at least 4,000 years earlier than the Mound Builders of the Ohio Valley. The evidence is cumulative, varied in nature, and most probably highly reliable.” according to author George F. Carter in his book Before Columbus.
The aboriginal people of North America have been called “redskins” for many years. This expression comes from the European settlers who arrived in Newfoundland and were met by the Beothuk tribe. The Beothuk covered their entire bodies, clothing, and weapons with a mixture of red ochre and oil which protected them from the cold in winter and the mosquitoes and other bugs in summer.
Red Ochre is iron-oxide, an active ingredient in today’s sunscreen. Other Algonquin tribes used it, although “not so lavishly as the Newfoundland natives.” These body markings related to tribal identity and had religious significance.
They used red ochre to paint not only their bodies, but also their houses, canoes, weapons, household appliances and musical instruments. This led Europeans to refer to them as “Red Indians”. As for the color of the skin, their complexion was very light compared to that of neighboring tribes.
They are, in fact, genetically related to the Basque population of Western Europe, great seafarers whose range extended into modern Italy, where the humaniod Cro-Magnon is found, also known for using red ochre in burials, art, etc. as long ago as 18,500 years.
Oddly enough, 9000 year-old red-haired, Caucasoid mummies have been found in caves in North and South America and these remains have, what is known as, HLA – Human Lymphocyte Antigens – genetic markers associated with Europeans. There are no natural-born red-haired Asians.
So, what is the meaning of all this confusing science? It means that the historical concept of a monolithic group of “Native-Americans”, uniform in their culture and heritage, is a myth. The aboriginals that the earliest English, Spanish and Dutch settlers encountered in the “New World” had multiple origins and multiple ethnicities, who followed multiple paths at multiple times – both by land and by sea – to arrive in North America in multiple waves over multiple millennia.
In all probability, each succeeding wave, whether from Asia, Polynesia, Scandinavia, Siberia, Iberia or Northern Europe, whether 40,000 years ago, or 25,000 or 10,000 or 1,000 years ago, probably conquered the preceding one – which is why there are so many “lost civilizations” in the Americas – like the ancient Anasazi tribe of the American southwest or the more recent Mohawk tribe of the Northeast. If only we had a written record before Europeans arrived.
This scientific evidence shows that no “Indian” group in the Americas can claim “ownership” of the land from time immemorial. Not only had different tribes conquered other tribes across the length and breadth of the continent for eons but, succeeding migrations from other continents had provided for entirely new, more advanced and, therefore, dominant tribal cultures from time to time.
This concept is not just “white-man’s mythology”. Today’s indigenous activists use their (sanitized) word for “predated” to refer to the driving out of one tribe by another – usually by violent means or other forms of coercion. The Europeans, in their tiny sailing ships, were merely the latest migration – but they came with two-thousand years of written history, organized religion, central government, diplomacy, written laws, science, literature, complex machines, technology, gunpowder, money and large, economically useful, domesticated animals.
The “Native American” community’s efforts to prevent any examination of “Kennewick Man” is an example of a brazen attempt to preserve the tribal mythology of a monolithic “native” American population – despite multiple languages, customs and traditions, appearance, etc. – by preventing any scientific truth that may cast doubt on their “template” of one “native” nation, entitled to the continent, from ever seeing the light of day.
Understand that even if these aboriginal tribes had an inalienable right to the continent, it would only be inalienable if they could have held it – which is the truth for all inalienable rights. Even though we, as Americans, have an inalienable Constitutional right to life – if someone murders us, we have lost that right because we were unable to hold it.
We have already discussed the hazy history of the North American aboriginals. Now, a documented brief history of the Europeans’ trek to North America:
Unlike the North American aboriginals, the Europeans had arrived after a long and (mostly) well documented journey beginning eons ago. By this time, the Epoch of Conquest had been playing out since the first homo sapiens had roamed the African landscape.
Picture two ancient clans occupying caves on opposite sides of a rift-valley in what is now modern-day Kenya or South Africa. Picture the roof of one of those caves collapsing so that the clan no longer has protection from the elements to keep their fire dry or a physical defense against predators or marauding tribes. Looking over to the other side of the valley, they decide to try something new – cooperation through diplomacy.
Their leaders cross the valley to try and convince the other clan to allow the two clans to join together where the homeless clan will join in hunting, gathering and protection in return for combined use of the cave. The leader of the (undamaged) cave dwellers refuses. Returning to their, now homeless people, the humiliated leaders hatch a new plan – if “the others” won’t cooperate, we will conquer them and take their cave for ourselves.
In fact, “Scientists say they have recently uncovered the remains of the earliest known massacre victims, dating from approximately 10,000 years ago. Archaeologists believe the victims were members of an extended family group of [homo sapien] hunter-gatherers who were slaughtered by a rival group.
According to the scientists’ report in the journal Nature, parts of 27 skeletons were discovered near Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. Ten of the twelve relatively complete skeletons showed signs of a violent death, including smashed skulls and faces, broken ribs and evidence of arrow wounds. Partial remains of 15 other skeletons were also found and are believed to belong to victims of the same attack. The group included the skeletons of at least eight women and six children. A fetal skeleton was also found in the abdomen of one of the female skeletons.
“The … massacre may have resulted from an attempt to seize resources – territory, women, children, food stored in pots, [a dry cave] – whose value was similar to those of later food-producing agricultural societies, among whom violent attacks on settlements became part of life,” said lead study author Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr of the University of Cambridge.
The find offers compelling evidence in the scientific debate about whether human aggression was passed on to us from our primate ancestors or emerged after the development of agriculture and settled, hierarchical human societies. The earliest known so-called “war grave” before the latest discovery was found in Germany and dated to approximately 5000 B.C.
“I’ve no doubt it is in our biology to be aggressive and lethal, just as it is to be deeply caring and loving,” study author Robert Foley of the University of Cambridge told the Daily Telegraph. “A lot of what we understand about human evolutionary biology suggests these are two sides of the same coin.”
The Epoch of Conquest had begun and this scenario – where only the physically, mentally and/or technologically strongest survived as ever larger organizations of modern humans migrated, first across continents from Africa to Asia and then to Europe (where they encountered, interbred with and conquered the more primitive Neanderthal people) and then across the world’s oceans to distant lands – would continue until civilization had progressed to the point where democratic nation-states, led by the United States of America and motivated by the desire to live in perpetual peace – took command of the balance of power across the entire world in the late 20th Century.
During the march of history through this epoch, families coalesced into clans, clans into tribes, tribes into cities, cities into city-states, city-states into confederations, confederations into kingdoms, kingdoms into empires and then empires collapsed into nation-states.
Empires were in place for well over 5000 years, since the time of the Bronze Age, where, as far as we know from historical records, the best known early empire, the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, conquered Nubia (modern Sudan). Since then, of course, kingdoms and conquerors have come and gone from the Egyptians to the Assyrians to the Persians to the Chinese to the Greeks to the Romans to Islam to Western Empires centered in Europe and also Japan – along with many others.
It was the fall of the Roman Empire in 476AD that especially affected Western Civilization because into the vacuum of the Dark Ages swept militant Islam, commanded to establish by conquest a World Caliphate in the name of their prophet Mohammed, an itinerant preacher in the Arabian Peninsula who lived in the early 7th Century.
In the first 100 years of Islamic conquest, the Caliphate extended from the Indus River in South Asia across the entire modern Middle-East, across all of North Africa into Spain and southern France. It wasn’t until 732AD that Frankish leader Charles Martel stopped the Islamic advance at Tours that led to their retreat from Western Europe (although they continued to strike into Eastern Europe, finally being defeated at the gates of Vienna in 1301AD).
Martel’s victory ushered in the European Middle Ages – perhaps the greatest period of intellectual advancement between the Golden Age of Greece (500 – 323BC) and the European Enlightenment (1650 – 1800). Over the next millennium, nations like England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Sweden, Prussia, Japan and Russia developed into kingdoms and empires, competing across the world for treasure and natural resources to finance their governments and feed their growing populations during the Age of Exploration.
The decimation of the European population during the Black Plague in the mid-14th Century (inadvertently brought to Europe along the Silk Road by traders from Asia – who also brought the technology of gunpowder from China) gave rise to the Renaissance in the Italian city-states and the capitals of Europe which culminated in the Enlightenment in Western Europe in the 17th and 18th Centuries.
Such philosophers as Francis Bacon (1562-1626), René Descartes (1596-1650), Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677), John Locke (1632–1704), “Voltaire” (1694–1778), David Hume (1711–1776), Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Isaac Newton (1643–1727), Denis Diderot (1713–1784), Rousseau (1712–1778) and Montesquieu (1689–1755) were leaders of the movement. The political ideals of the Enlightenment influenced the American Declaration of Independence, the United States Bill of Rights and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
But, before enlightenment came war.
Next time, the Reformation and the escape of religious refugees to the New World.